Autumn is the time to prepare the ground for the next season. In several Italian regions, as the first signs of snow arrive, it is important to be able to organise the land in which the sowing will take place by the end of November.
In many countries, Autumn is also the time for cleaning the remains of the previous crop.
On this occasion, according to Emil Canapa, it is also a time for basic fertilisation - nutrients are given phosphorus, potassium, and possibly organic matter. Hemp also absorbs high amounts of calcium, but it is rarely necessary to add it to Italian soils, which are generally sufficiently rich in this element. The quantities to be administered are related to the 'nutritive' needs of the plant.
At the end of winter, the work of preparing the sowing bed is carried out using means such as windbreaks and harrows, taking care to "crumble" the soil well.
In the case of mineral fertilisation alone, it follows the administration of nitrogen which is important to be available to the seedlings as soon as they start to grow.
In Italy, the sowing season begins in the month of March in the center-south and extends until the middle of April in the center-north.
Care must be taken not to procrastinate because in this case the risks of lack of water supply increase, to which the plants are particularly sensitive during the first phase of growth.
In the past, hemp was fertilised with organic material such as manure, and today this process is still seen as one of the most effective because it brings nutrients to the soil, improves its structure, and allows the roots to work to their full potential.
However, in terms of chemical contribution, the following content is required for cannabis:
100 kg / ha of N (nitrogen)
50-70 kg / ha of P2O
550 kg / ha of K2O
The culture is sensitive to the availability of nitrogen and normally the poorly endowed crops are yellowed, with stunted and inhomogeneous growth.
Excess nitrogen, however, is bad for the plants, as it reduces the amount of fibre produced and reduces yield and flower quality. It also increases the chances that the crop will be caught in high wind conditions.
Traditionally in the areas of the Po Valley, sowing was done at the end of winter (March 19th, San Giuseppe). The minimum germination temperature, 1 ° C, nevertheless allows to anticipate the sowing period even at the end of the month of February.
A rapid and homogeneous environment is guaranteed by a soil temperature close to 10 °C.
The seeding density is particularly important in order to obtain a good environment to favour the development of the plant stem and to control weeds.
40-50 kg/ha is enough to obtain a good environment, high quality stems with good fibre content and good seed production.
Depth: 2/3 cm Interfila: 15-25 cm
Seed distance on the row: 5-8 cm
Mechanical seed drills, grain machines, or pneumatic seed drills are normally used.
Organised by the Toscanapa Association
Sources mentioned: EmilCanapa