In the Cannabis plant we can find molecules which have very important functions, Terpenes!
When we observe a Cannabis plant, one of the first things striking us is the scent and for this we should thank Terpenes, which being present in different proportions, attribute to each plant a different perfume.
Until recently Science hasn’t been much concentrated on the world of Terpenes; the attention was focalized on CBD and THC, however nowadays a huge interest exists regarding the role Terpenes play in some effects produced by Cannabis.
Genetics of the plant and cultivation
Terpenes can be found in higher concentrations in the female Cannabis plants which haven’t been pollinated; the quality and the composition change depending on the genetics of the plant and the conditions in which it is cultivated.
Interaction with the Endocannabinoid System
Terpenes, when taken, interact with the endocannabinoid system and act in combination with cannabinoids.
For example, myrcene is a terpene with an odour similar to clove which has the capacity to increase cell permeability and thus stimulate a rapid absorption of cannabinoids.
Terpenes and the entourage effect
The combination of terpenes and cannabinoids is called entourage effect, demonstrated by scientific studies; this combination can modify, in a significant way, the action of the main active principles, THC and CBD.
Some terpenes would bind with the CB1 and CB2 receptors, influencing some functions of our organism, others would modulate the cell permeability, regulating, for example, the absorption of THC.
Science has studied the effect of terpenes in which we can find antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-cancer, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant and sedative effects.
The entourage effect explains the reason why flower buds or extracts of Cannabis result more effective with respect to synthetic cannabinoids.