In Cannabis you can find over 80 cannabinoids, the most well known being THC and CBD.
For several weeks we have discussed CBG - its properties and characteristics that scientists are studying, and its differences with Cannabidiol. Let's find out more about these three important Cannabinoids!
THC was isolated and synthesised for the first time in the 60s by Raffael Mechoulam, the Israeli "doctor of Cannabis" who was among the very first scientists to study Cannabis and its potential.
In 1985, the Food and Drug Administration recognised its therapeutic capacity, developing a drug, dronabinol, developed by Unimed Pharmaceuticals with funding from the National Cancer Institute.
THC is responsible for the psychoactive effect that develops during cannabis use. It encourages the brain to release dopamine from which a feeling of euphoria and well-being arises.
CBD is an active component of Cannabis Sativa and is the main Fitocannabinoide present in the entire plant complex (hundreds of chemicals and over 70 Fitocannabinoids, some of which are still little examined).
Over the past few years we have witnessed a renewed interest in CBD by the Scientific and Medical Community, above all thanks to the discovery of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and neuroprotective activity.
Cannabigerol, known as CBG, is a Fitocannabinoid, which unlike THC, just as CBD is not psychoactive.
CBG was discovered for the first time in 1964 by the scientist Y.Gaoni, and is composed of Cannabigerolic Acid (CBGA), one of the first cannabinoids to be formed in the cannabis plant.
Gaoni speaks of a terpenophenolic compound that can be divided into three different molecules that in turn have different chemical properties that have therapeutic and pharmaceutical applications.
In fact, during the maturation phase of the Cannabis plant, some enzymes work by transforming the CBGA into a variety of acidic cannabinoids, such as THCA, CBDA, and CBCA.
CBG is believed to be a CB1 receptor antagonist of the endocannabinoid system.
It means that it can inhibit the effects of CB1 agonists, particularly THC, and therefore interfere with the effects of other cannabinoids.
CBD and CBG are two completely different cannabinoids found in cannabis plants, have different chemical structures and very different concentrations.
Unlike CBD, CBG is a cannabinoid that performs its function as a basis for many other compounds produced by plants during growth.
CBG and CBD are non-psychoactive compounds, whilst CBG increases the production of anandamide, the main endogenous cannabinoid present in our body.
Anandamide helps regulate sleep, appetite and memory by acting directly on the CB1 and CB2 receptors.
CBD, on the other hand, reduces the access of anandamide to fatty acids, which act as transport molecules. To learn more, click here.
CBD does not directly interact with the receptors CB1 and CB2, present mainly in the brain and central nervous system.
CBG, on the other hand, acts on the receptors as a partial agonist. However, the intensity of these effects is not at all comparable to that of THC.